"When you think of this dividing up of the personality into ego, super-ego and id, you must not imagine sharp dividing lines such as are artificially drawn in the field of political geography. We cannot do justice to the characteristics of the mind by means of linear contours, such as occur in a drawing or in a primitive painting, but we need rather the areas of colour shading off into one another that are to be found in modern pictures. After we have made our separations, we must allow what we have separated to merge again. Do not judge too harshly of a first attempt at picturing a thing so elusive as the human mind."

--Sigmund Freud, An Outline of Psychoanalysis (1940)

On Freud

Psychoanalysis was given birth by Sigmund Freud at the turn of the century. Freud conceptualized the mind, metaphorically, as an ancient, buried ruin which had to been unearthed much like an archeologist would unearth the treasures of an ancient civilization. Freud's influence can be traced from his hard-core natural science background as a student of neurology, as well as his rarely acknowledged debt to Franz Brentano (also a teacher of Edmund Husserl), who taught Freud to understand that consciousness is always intentional. This tension between a more phenomenological approach to understanding the mind and Freud's inclination toward natural scientific explanation is a tension which exists in all of his work and writings, as well as throughout all of psychoanalytic theory following Freud. In fact, this tension between understanding and explanation can be said to be a tension which exists, whether acknowledged or not, in all of the human sciences (see, for example, Dilthey).

Freud's version of psychoanalysis had its predecessor in the work with hysterics conducted by neurologists Jean-Martin Charcot and Hippolyte Bernheim, who, using hypnosis, discovered that the origins of hysteria were mental rather than overtly physiological. Freud's colleague, Josef Breuer, first began using his modified technique of hypnosis to treat the famous hysteric patient with the alias 'Anna O,' who we now know to be Bertha Pappenheim. This technique involved placing the patient in a hypnotic trance and removing the symptoms through the use of posthypnotic suggestion. Freud, a poor hypnotist, became especially adept at listening to these patients, and, along with Breuer, discovered that the origins of the hysteria appeared to involve emotionally charged events in the patients' past. When the patient, through talking, followed associations in her memory, she was able to recover the forgotten event, which led to the cure. Freud eventually gave up the process of using hypnotism for the use of a technique he came to call "free association," in which the patient was encouraged to put aside all inhibitions and
follow her associations, which would eventually, even without hypnosis, lead to the recovery of unconscious memory.

From the period of 1895 to roughly 1905, Freud's innovations led to the development of his theory, all of which were developed from his clinical work with patients. Initially theoretical formulations led to the topographic model of the psyche, which Freud categorized into three different subsections: the unconscious, preconscious, and conscious. Further, Freud became more and more sophisticated in his technique of psychoanalysis, and he became particularly adept at using his patients's subjective impressions of him to help the patient to discover the origins of the unconscious memory (or memories) which led to the symptoms from which she suffered. It followed that Freud developed a theory that patients resisted remembering the trauma, and this 'resistance' was evident in disruptions of the free association process. Such disruptions constituted what Freud called 'defenses,' and, most notably, the defenses involved what Freud called 'transference,' the transference of conflictual thoughts and feelings to the analyst. Freud also came to acknowledge that unconscious events are traceable in other phenomena, as well, including dreams, slips of the tongue, and in jokes.

From his work with patients, Freud was eventually led to develop a more and more sophisticated theory of the human psyche which became increasingly understood according to a developmental model. Freud, by observing his patients, found that many of the memories uncovered by his patients were sexual in nature and reverted back to early childhood memories. From these observations, Freud developed his controversial theory of childhood sexuality. Freud eventually justified these observations with a generalized theory of an instinctual drive, which became the foundation for his theory. At first, Freud felt that such instincts were largely sexual in nature. Later, he conceded that instincts also involved aggressive drives, as well as sexual drives. In any case, Freud's development model, a theory of 'psychosexual development,' traced the development of childhood seuxality through various stages, organized according to 'erogenous zones,' bodily zones which are highly sexually charged at certain stages in development: in particular, the mouth, anus, and genitals.

Using the metaphor of a hydraulic system, Freud imagined the instincts as consisting of a form of energy he called 'libido.' The very young infant, Freud felt, was entirely governed by the libido, and this embedded, embodied existence was called 'primary process thinking,' the bedrock of all experience. This 'primary process thinking' largely consists of phantasy, omnipotent thinking, and exists outside of linear time -- in short, it demands immediate gratification. As the child develops through the various psychosexual stages -- oral, anal, and phallic -- the child's libido is increasingly 'repressed' by parental figures who train the child to delay gratification and to channel the libido in ways that are socially appropriate. This pure libidinal drive Freud called the 'id.' Disruptions at any of the stages of
psychosexual development, Freud observed, appeared to result in what he called 'fixation' -- an excessive
preoccupation with that particular erogenous zone characterized either by over-indulgence or under-indulgence. With the formation of the unconscious, what is left-over in the conscious of the person is called 'secondary process thinking' by Freud.

Central to Freud's theory is the "Oedipal complex." Freud discovered that, with many of his patients, conflicts arose during the phallic stage, which occurred between the ages of three and five. With the onset of the phallic stage, Freud argued, the child's genitals become libidinally charged, and this leads to a desire for the parent of the opposite sex and a feeling of competitiveness with the parent of the same sex. The particular organization of these conflicts depends on how the child has negotiated the earlier psychosexual stages. Freud felt that the Oedipus complex is ultimately resolved, at least for males, by "castration anxiety." The young boy fears that his desire for the mother will result in the loss of his penis, which leads him, instead, to identify with the father. From this resolution of the conflict, the child develops an "ideal" self based on the internalization of parental values. This "ego ideal" results in the develop of the "super-ego," which constitutes the often unrealistic ideals toward which the child will strive and which inevitably conflict with the libidinal drives of the 'id.' The partly conscious, partly unconscious self, known as the 'ego,' bears the responsibility for negotiating between these two extremes. Thus, the "ego" is governed by the "reality principle," which must use various defenses to negotiate between the unrealistic motives of the "superego" ("ego ideal") and the "id," governed by the "pleasure principle." This structure of the psyche is the way Freud made sense of the emergence of the unconscious, which results in the repression of libidinal drives, as well as memories, thoughts, and feelings which arouse anxiety. Ultimately, for Freud, the human being is in perpetual conflict with itself, torn between one's animal nature and the ideals of one's culture internalized with the values of one's parents.

As mentioned previously, Freud was very protective of his theory, and he entered into conflicts with various colleagues who offered alternative theoretical perspectives, including Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Otto Rank, and Sandor Ferenczi. All of these brilliant thinkers anticipated what would become central themes in contemporary psychoanalytic thought, even in Freud's later thought, although their contributions to these discoveries are often overlooked. Further, as mentioned above, Freud's psychoanalytic theory is only the beginning. Even those faithful to Freud would significantly expand upon and, ultimately, transform Freud's origin insights into the nature of psychological life.


The Freud Page by Maria Helena Rowell
The Sigmund Freud Page
Freud Net at A. Brill Library
Sigmund Freud--The Father of Psychoanalysis
Freud: Conflict and Culture
Lana Vornik on Freud
C. George Boeree on Freud
Peter Landry on Freud
Sigmund Freud page at Lucid Cafe
Freud's Biography by Maria Helena Rowell
Sigmund Freud by Jim Hopkins
Sigmund Freud Museum, Vienna
Freud Museum London
Freudian Slips
Burying Freud
Sigmund Freud chronology
Abstracts from the Standard Edition of the Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud
Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
Freud's The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901)
Freud's Clark Lectures (1909)
Freud's The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis (1910)
Freud's The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement (1914)
Excerpt from Freud's "Repression" (1915)
Freud's Preface to A Young Girl's Diary (1919)
Manuscript page from Freud's "A Seventeenth Century Demonological Neurosis" (1923)
Freud's "The Anatomy of the Mental Personality" (1932)
Freud's "A Philosophy of Life" (1932)
Freud's The Structure of the Unconscious: from "An Outline of Psycho-Analysis" (1938)
Freud's letter to Wilhelm Fliess (15.10.97)
Freud's letter to Karl Weissman
Sigmund Freud on psychoanalysis and Vienna
Notes on Freud's "Creative Writers and Daydreaming"
Notes on Freud's S.E., Vol. 1
Notes on Freud's S.E., Vol. 2
Notes on Freud's S.E., Vol. 3
Notes on Freud's S.E., Vols. 4 & 5
Notes on Freud's S.E., Vol. 6
Notes on Freud's S.E., Vol. 7
Notes on Freud's S.E., Vol. 9
Notes on Freud's S.E., Vol. 10
Notes on Freud's S.E., Vol. 11
Notes on Freud's S.E., Vol. 21
Notes on Freud's S.E., Vol. 23
Original recordings of Freud
"Sigmund Freud" by Peter Gay
"Freud: His Life and Thought" by Marc Fonda
"The Body According to Freud" by Marc Fonda
"Freud, Faerie Tales, and Dream Interpretation" by Marc Fonda
"The Psychotic Dr. Schreber: A Critique of Freud's Theory of Paranoia" by Brent Dean Robbins
"A History of Psychoanalytic Thought" by Brent Dean Robbins
"Reflections on Being a Psychotherapist" by Brent Dean Robbins
"Freud, the Feminist?" by Suzanne Brom
"In Defense of Humanism" by Caley Michael Orr
"Out of the Shadows" by Jennifer Severns
"Martini or Bikini? The Question of Differance Between Philosophy and Literature" by Rex Olson
"Writing Freud" by Doug Davis
"Freud's Unwritten Case: The Patient 'E'" by Doug Davis
"An Erotic Table d'Hôte" by Doug Davis
"Freud, Jung, and Psychoanalysis" by Doug Davis
"Theory for the 90s: Traumatic Seduction in Historical Context" by Doug Davis
"Mal d'Archive: Une Impression Freudienne" by Jacques Derrida (in English)
"A Counterblast in the War on Freud: The Shrink is in" by Jonathon Lear
"The Surrealists and Freud" by Truls Rostrup
"To the Couch: A Revival for Analysis" by Erica Goode
"Future of the International Psychoanalytic Association" by Dominique Scarfone
Discussion of a paper by Salman Akhtar by Donald L. Carveth
"Between Tenderness and Passion: Freud and the Afterwardsness of Adolescence" by Geoff Miles
Review of Richard Webster's Why Freud was Wrong by Tim Kendall
"Enactments: An Evolving Dyadic Concept of Acting Out" by Douglas H. Frayn
"More than a Cigar" by Evan J. Elkin
"Psychoanalysis, Representation, Politics" by Sean Homer
"Oedipus and His Human Destiny" by Eva Maria Migliavacca
"Our Need of Taboo: Pictures of violence and mourning difficulties" by Andrzej Werbart
"Life Among the Analysts" by Douglas Kirsner
"Unfree Associations" by Douglas Kirsner
"Psychoanalysis Today: Implications for Organizational Applications" by Kenneth Eisold
"Psychoanalytic Aesthetics: The British School" by Nicola Glover
"Hearing the Case--Freud's Little Hans" by David Punter
"The Ideal of the Anonymous Analyst and the Problem of Self-Disclosure" by Owen Renik
"Changes in Psychoanalytic Technique: Progressive or Regressive?" by Manuel Furer
"Predictors of Outcome in Child Psychoanalysis" by Peter Fonagy and Mary Target
"Beyond the Ego and the Id Revisited" by Charles Brenner
"The Mind as Conflict and Compromise Formation" by Charles Brenner
"Freud and Splitting" by Andrew Brook
"Psychoanalysis and Commonsense Psychology" by Andrew Brook
"Neuroscience versus Psychology in Freud" by Andrew Brook
"Freud and Kant" by Andrew Brook
"Schopenhauer and Freud" by Christopher Young and Andrew Brook
"The Effects of Psychotherapy: An Evaluation" by H.J. Eysenck
"Modernity and Its Discontents" by Sergio Paulo Rouanet
"The Historical Meaning of the Crisis in Psychology" by Lev Vygotsky
"Introduction to Freud's 'The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis'" by Raymond E. Fancher
"Commentary on Freud's 'The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis'" by Raymond E. Fancher
"The Unconscious" by Jim Hopkins
"Psychoanalytic and Scientific Reasoning" by Jim Hopkins
"The Interpretation of Dreams" by Jim Hopkins
"Psychoanalysis, Interpretation and Science" by Jim Hopkins
"Wittgenstein, Interpretation and the Foundations of Science" by Jim Hopkins
"Dreams as Viewed by Freud and Jung" by Brlizg
"Concepts of Reality and Psychic Reality" by L. Kirshner
"Malignant Self Love: Narcissism Revisited" by Sam Vaknin
"A Developmental Model of Girls and Women" by Donna Emmanuel
"Freud and Dora: Repressing an Oppressed Identity" by Michael Billig
"The Psychology of Atheism" by Paul C. Vitz
"Ego: The Cauldron of Personality" by Michael Fenichel
"Freud is Dead...Long Live Freud" by Brian Allen
"Freud: The Master or a Has-Been?" by John Suler
"Defense Mechanisms" by John Suler
"Truce of the Couch Gurus" by Barry Hugill
"Psychoanalytic Theory: Terms and Concepts" by John Lye
"Psychoanalysis and Literature" by John Lye
"Psychoanalytic Criticism" by Dino Felluga
"A Dream Interpreted" by Sam Vaknin
"Freud and Freudianism" by Robert Sullivan and George P. Landow
"Freud and the Interpretation of Dreams" by Matthew
"How Best to Ensure the Future?" by Joseph Sandler
"The Future of Psychoanalysis" by R. Horacio Etchegoyen
"Some Remarks on a Reading of The Future Of an Illusion in 1998" By Serge Lebovici
"The Future of an Illusion" by William Gillespie
"Sexuality, Psychoanalysis and Social Change" by Juliet Mitchell
"Was Freud right? Maybe, maybe not" by Beth Azar
Robert M. Young's On-Line Archives
Elizabeth F. Loftus' articles on repressed memory
Henry W. Beck home page
DreamWave -- Paragon: Sigmund Freud's Shingle
Freud at Great Books Index
What is Psychoanalysis?
International Journal of Psychoanalysis
Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Journal of Clinical Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalytic Studies
Free Associations
Clinical Studies: International Journal of Psychoanalysis
Journal of Psychoanalysis
Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society
The Psychoanalytic Review
Psychoanalytic Dialogues
International Forum of Psychoanalysis
Canadian Journal of Psychoanalysis
The British Journal of Psychotherapy
Contemporary Psychoanalysis
The British Psychoanalytic Society
The American Psychoanalytic Association
The American Academy of Psychoanalysis
The American Psychoanalytic Foundation
Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis
Canadian Psychoanalytic Society
Ottawa Psychoanalytic Society
Centre for Psychotherapeutic Studies
Universities Association for Psychoanalytic Studies
Australian Centre for Psychoanalysis
William Alanson White Institute
The Gunk Foundation
San Francisco Psychoanalytic Institute and Society
Apres-Coup Psychoanalytic Association
The Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis
The Chicago Psychoanalytic Society
Dallas Psychoanalytic Society
Washington Psychoanalytic Foundation
The Group for the Discussion of the Freudian Field
Psychoanalysis and the Public Sphere (mailing list)
Psychoanalytic Studies (mailing list)
The PsyArt On-Line Forum (mailing list)
freud-lacan (mailing list)
IJPA Discussion Group (mailing list)
JAPA Netcast (mailing list)
Freud List (mailing list)
Freud Photos and Memorabilia
Sigmund Freud Private Videos
Sigmund Freud's Voice
Image of Freud's Structure of the Psyche
Freud's face
Freudian Links


Autobiographical Study
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Beyond the Pleasure Principle
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Civilization and Its Discontents/Standard Edition
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The Complete Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Ernest Jones 1908-1939
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The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Sandor Ferenczi : 1908-1914
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The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Sandor Ferenczi : 1914-1919 (Vol 2 : 1914-1919)
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The Diary of Sigmund Freud 1929-1939 : A Record of the Final Decade
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Dora : An Analysis of a Case of Hysteria
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Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis
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The Triumph of the Therapeutic : Uses of Faith After Freud
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Freud Among the Philosophers : The Psychoanalytic Unconscious and Its Philosophical Critics
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